|United States Patent
June 26, 1990
Method for the production of a fuel gas
A method for obtaining the release of a fuel gas mixture including hydrogen
and oxygen from water in which the water is processed as a dielectric
medium in an electrical resonant circuit.
Meyer; Stanley A. (3792 Broadway, Grove City, OH 43123)
June 16, 1988|
|Current U.S. Class:
||204/157.5; 204/157.52 |
|Field of Search:
References Cited [Referenced By]
U.S. Patent Documents
|3740283||Apr., 1988||Laas et al.||204/183.
|4696809||Sep., 1987||Vialoron et al.||204/157.
Julius Grant, ed., Hachh's Chemical Dictionary, 4th ed., McGraw-Hill Book
Co., 1969, p. 282.
Primary Examiner: Kalafut; Stephen J.
Attorney, Agent or Firm: Porter, Wright, Morris & Arthur
Parent Case Text
This is a continuation-in-part of my co-pending application Ser. No.
081,859, filed 8/5/87, now U.S. Pat. No. 4,826,581.
What is claimed is:
1. A method of obtaining the release of a gas mixture including hydrogen
and oxygen and other dissolved gases formerly entrapped in water, from
water, consisting of:
(A) providing a capacitor in which water is included as a dielectric
between capacitor plates, in a resonant charging choke circuit that
includes an inductance in series with the capacitor;
(B) subjecting the capacitor to a pulsating, unipolar electric charging
voltage in which the polarity does not pass beyond an arbitrary ground,
whereby the water molecules within the capacitor are subjected to the
electric field between the capacitor plates;
(C) further subjecting the water in said capacitor to a pulsating electric
field resulting from the subjection of the capacitor to the charging
voltage such that the pulsating electric field induces a resonance within
the water molecules;
(D) continuing the application of the pulsating charging voltage to the
capacitor after resonance occurs so that the energy level within the
molecules is increased in cascading incremental steps in proportion to the
number of pulses;
(E) maintaining the charge of said capacitor during the application of the
pulsating charging voltage, whereby the co-valent electrical bonding of
the hydrogen and oxygen atoms within said molecules is destabilized, such
that the force of the electrical field applied to the molecules exceeds
the bonding force within the molecules, and hydrogen and oxygen atoms are
liberated from the molecules as elemental gases.
2. The method of claim 1 including the further steps of collecting said
liberated hydrogen and oxygen gases, and any other gases that were
formerly dissolved with in the water and discharging said collected gases
as a fuel gas mixture.
Field of Invention
This invention relates to a method of and apparatus for obtaining the
release of a fuel gas mixture including hydrogen and oxygen from water.
BACKGROUND OF THE PRIOR ART
Numerous processes have been proposed for separating a water molecule into
its elemental hydrogen and oxygen components. Electrolysis is one such
process. Other processes are described in United States patents such as
4,344,831; 4,184,931; 4,023,545; 3,980,053; and Patent Cooperation Treaty
application No. PCT/US80/1362, published 30 April, 1981.
OBJECTS OF THE INVENTION
It is an object of the invention to provide a fuel cell and a process in
which molecules of water are broken down into hydrogen and oxygen gases,
and a fuel gas mixture including hydrogen, oxygen and other gasses
formerly dissolved within the water is produced. As used herein the term
"fuel cell" refers to a single unit of the invention comprising a water
capacitor cell, as hereinafter explained, that produces the fuel gas in
accordance with the method of the invention.
Brief Description of the Drawings
FIG. 1 illustrates a circuit useful in the process.
FIG. 2 shows a perspective of a "water capacitor"element used in the fuel
FIGS. 3A through 3F are illustrations depicting the theoretical bases for
phenomena encountered during operation of the invention herein.
Description of the Preferred Embodiment
In brief, the invention is a method of obtaining the release of a gas
mixture including hydrogen and oxygen and other dissolved gases formerly
entrapped in water, from water consisting of: (A) providing a capacitor,
in which the water is included as a dielectric liquid between capacitor
plates, in a resonant charging choke circuit that includes an inductance
in series with the capacitor; (B) subjecting the capacitor to a pulsating,
unipolar electric voltage field in which the polarity does not pass beyond
an arbitrary ground, whereby the water molecules within the capacitor are
subjected to a charge of the same polarity and the water molecules are
distended by their subjection to electrical polar forces; (C) further
subjecting the water in said capacitor to said pulsating electric field to
achieve a pulse frequency such that the Pulsating electric field induces a
resonance within the water molecule; (D) continuing the application of the
pulsing frequency to the capacitor cell after resonance occurs so that the
energy level within the molecule is increased in cascading incremental
steps in proportion to the number of pulses; (E) maintaining the charge of
said capacitor during the application of the pulsing field, whereby the
co-valent electrical bonding of the hydrogen and oxygen atoms within said
molecules is destabilized such that the force of the electrical field
applied, as the force is effective within the molecule, exceeds the
bonding force of the molecule, and hydrogen and oxygen atoms are liberated
from the molecule as elemental gases; and (F) collecting said hydrogen and
oxygen gases, and any other gases that were formerly dissolved within the
water, and discharging the collected gases as a fuel gas mixture.
The process follows the sequence of steps shown in the following Table I in
which water molecules are subjected to increasing electrical forces. In an
ambient state, randomly oriented water molecules are aligned with respect
to a molecular polar orientation. They are next, themselves polarized and
"elongated" by the application of an electric Potential to the extent that
covalent bonding of the water molecule is so weakened that the atoms
disassociate and the molecule breaks down into hydrogen and oxygen
elemental components. Engineering design parameters based on known
theoretical principles of electrical circuits determine the incremental
levels of electrical and wave energy input required to produce resonance
in the system whereby the fuel gas comprised of a mixture of hydrogen,
oxygen, and the other gases such as air test were formerly dissolved
within the water, is produced.
THE SEQUENCE OF THE RELATIVE STATE
OF THE WATER MOLECULE AND/OR
A. (AMBIENT STATE) RANDOM
B. ALIGNMENT OF POLAR FIELDS
C. POLARIZATION OF MOLECULE
D. MOLECULAR ELONGATION
E. ATOM LIBERATION BY BREAKDOWN OF
F. RELEASE OF GASES
In the process, the point of optimum gas release is reached at a circuit
resonance. Water in the fuel cell is subjected to a pulsating, polar
electric field produced by the electrical circuit whereby the water
molecules are distended by reason of their subjection to electrical polar
forces of the capacitor plates. The polar pulsating frequency applied is
such that the pulsating electric field induces a resonance in the
molecule. A cascade effect occurs and the overall energy level of specific
water molecules is increased in cascading, incremental steps. The hydrogen
and oxygen atomic gases, and other gas components formerly entrapped as
dissolved gases in water, are released when the resonant energy exceeds
the co-valent bonding force of the water molecule. A preferred
construction material for the capacitor plates is a stainless steel T-304
which is non-chemically reactive with water, hydrogen, or oxygen. An
electrically conductive material which is inert in the fluid environment
is a desirable material of construction for the electrical field plates of
the "water capacitor" employed in the circuit.
Once triggered, the gas output is controllable by the attenuation of
operational parameters. Thus, once the frequency of resonance is
identified, by varying the applied pulse voltage to the water fuel cell
assembly, gas output is varied. By varying the pulse shape and/or
amplitude or pulse train sequence of the initial pulsing wave source,
final gas output is varied. Attenuation of the voltage field frequency in
the form of OFF and ON pulses likewise affects output.
The overall apparatus thus includes an electrical circuit in which a water
capacitor having a known dielectric property is an element. The fuel gases
are obtained from the water by the disassociation of the water molecule.
The water molecules are split into component atomic elements (hydrogen and
oxygen gases) by a voltage stimulation process called the electrical
polarization process which also releases dissolved gases entrapped in the
From the outline of physical phenomena associated with the process
described in Table 1, the theoretical basis of the invention considers the
respective states of molecules and gases and ions derived from liquid
water. Before voltage stimulation, water molecules are randomly dispersed
throughout water within a container. When a unipolar voltage pulse train
such as shown in FIGS. 3B through 3F is applied to positive and negative
capacitor plates, an increasing voltage potential is induced in the
molecules in a linear, step-like charging effect. The electrical field of
the particles within a volume of water including the electrical field
plates increases from a low energy state to a high energy state
successively in a step manner following each pulse-train as illustrated
figuratively in the depictions of FIG. 3A through 3F. The increasing
voltage potential is always positive in direct relationship to negative
ground potential during each pulse. The voltage polarity on the plates
which create the voltage fields remains constant although the voltage
charge increases. Positive and negative voltage "zones" are thus formed
simultaneously in the electrical field of the capacitor plates.
In the first stage of the process described in Table 1, because the water
molecule naturally exhibits opposite electrical fields in a relatively
polar configuration (the two hydrogen atoms are positively electrically
charged relative to the negative electrically charged oxygen atom), the
voltage pulse causes initially randomly oriented water molecules in the
liquid state to spin and orient themselves with reference to positive and
negative poles of the voltage fields applied. The positive electrically
charged hydrogen atoms of said water molecule are attracted to a negative
voltage field; while, at the same time, the negative electrically charged
oxygen atoms of the same water molecule are attracted to a positive
voltage field. Even a slight potential difference applied to inert,
conductive plates of a containment chamber which forms a capacitor will
initiate polar atomic orientation within the water molecule based on
When the potential difference applied causes the orientated water molecules
to align themselves between the conductive plates, pulsing causes the
voltage field intensity to be increased in accordance with FIG. 3B. As
further molecular alignment occurs, molecular movement is hindered.
Because the positively charged hydrogen atoms of said aligned molecules
are attracted in a direction opposite to the negatively charged oxygen
atoms, a polar charge alignment or distribution occurs within the
molecules between said voltage zones, as shown in FIG. 3B. And as the
energy level of the atoms subjected to resonant pulsing increases, the
stationary water molecules become elongated as shown in FIGS. 3C and 3D.
Electrically charged nuclei and electrons are attracted toward opposite
electrically charged voltage zones --disrupting the mass and charge
equilibrium of the water molecule.
As the water molecule is further exposed to an increasing potential
difference resulting from the step charging of the capacitor, the
electrical force of attraction of the atoms within the molecule to the
capacitor plates of the chamber also increases in strength. As a result,
the co-valent bonding between atoms which form the molecule is weakened
--and ultimately terminated. The negatively charged electron is attracted
toward the positively charged hydrogen atoms, while at the same time, the
negatively charged oxygen atoms repel electrons.
In a more specific explanation of the "sub-atomic" action that occurs in
the water fuel cell, it is known that natural water is a liquid which has
a dielectric constant of 78.54 at 20.degree. C. and 1 atm pressure.
[Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 68th ed., CRC Press (Boca Raton,
Florida (1987-88)), Section E-50. H.sub.2 O (water)].
When a volume of water is isolated and electrically conductive plates, that
are chemically inert in water and are separated by a distance, are
immersed in the water, a capacitor is formed, having a capacitance
determined by the surface area of the plates, the distance of their
separation and the dielectric constant of water.
When water molecules are exposed to voltage at a restricted current, water
takes on an electrical charge. By the laws of electrical attraction,
molecules align according to positive and negative polarity fields of the
molecule and the alignment field. The plates of a capacitor constitute
such an alignment field when a voltage is applied.
When a charge is applied to a capacitor, the electrical charge of the
capacitor equals the applied voltage charge; in a water capacitor, the
dielectric property of water resists the flow of amps in the circuit, and
the water molecule itself, because it has polarity fields formed by the
relationship of hydrogen and oxygen in the covalent bond, and an intrinsic
dielectric property, becomes part of the electrical circuit, analogous to
a "microcapacitor" within the capacitor defined by the plates.
In the Example of a fuel cell circuit of FIG. 1, a water capacitor is
included. The step-up coil is formed on a conventional torroidal core
formed of a compressed ferromagnetic powdered material that will not
itself become permanently magnetized, such as the trademarked "Ferramic
06# "Permag" powder as described in Siemens Ferrites
Catalog,CG-2000-002-121, (Cleveland, Ohio) No. F626-1205. The core is 1.50
inch in diameter and 0.25 inch in thickness. A primary coil of 200 turns
of 24 gauge copper wire is provided and a coil of 600 turns of 36 gauge
wire comprises the secondary winding.
In the circuit of FIG. 1, the diode is a lN1198 diode which acts as a
blocking diode and an electric switch that allows voltage flow in one
direction only. Thus, the capacitor is never subjected to a pulse of
The primary coil of the torroid is subject to a 50% duty cycle pulse. The
torroidal pulsing coil provides a voltage step-up from the pulse generator
in excess of five times, although the relative amount of step-up is
determined by pre-selected criteria for a particular application. As the
stepped-up pulse enters first inductor (formed from 100 turns of 24 gauge
wire 1 inch in diameter), an electromagnetic field is formed around the
inductor, voltage is switched off when the pulse ends, and the field
collapses and produces another pulse of the same polarity; i.e., another
positive pulse is formed where the 50% duty cycle was terminated. Thus, a
double pulse frequency is produced; however, in a pulse train of unipolar
pulses, there is a brief time when pulses are not present.
By being so subjected to electrical pulses in the circuit of FIG. 1, water
confined in the volume that includes the capacitor plates takes on an
electrical charge that is increased by a step charging phenomenon
occurring in the water capacitor. Voltage continually increases (to about
1000 volts and more) and the water molecule starts to elongate.
The pulse train is then switched off; the voltage across the water
capacitor drops to the amount of charge that the water molecules have
taken on, i.e. voltage is maintained across the charged capacitor. The
pulse train is then reapplied.
Because a voltage potential applied to a capacitor can perform work, the
higher the voltage potential, the more work is performed by a given
capacitor. In an optimum capacitor that is wholly non-conductive, zero (0)
current flow will occur across the capacitor. Thus, in view of an
idealized capacitor circuit, the object of the water capacitor circuit is
to prevent electron flow through the circuit, i.e. such as occurs by
electron flow or leakage through a resistive element that produces heat.
Electrical leakage in water will occur, however, because of some residual
conductivity and impurities or ions that may be otherwise present in the
water. Thus, the water capacitor is preferably chemically inert. An
electrolyte is not added to the water.
In the isolated water bath, the water molecule takes on charge, and the
charge increases. The object of the process is to switch off the co-valent
bonding of the water molecule and interrupt the sub-atomic force, i.e. the
electrical force or electromagnetic force, that binds the hydrogen and
oxygen atoms to form a molecule so that the hydrogen and oxygen separate.
Because an electron will only occupy a certain electron shell (the shells
are well known) the voltage applied to the capacitor affects the
electrical forces inherent in the co-valent bond. As a result of the
charge applied by the plates, the applied force becomes greater than the
force of the co-valent bonds between the atom of the water molecule; and
the water molecule becomes elongated. When this happens, the time share
ratio of the electrons between the atoms and the electron shells is
In the process, electrons are extracted from the water bath; electrons are
not consumed nor are electrons introduced into the water bath by the
circuit as electrons are conventionally introduced in an electrolysis
process. There may nevertheless occur a leakage current through the water.
Those hydrogen atoms missing electrons become neutralized; and atoms are
liberated from the water. The charged atoms and electrons are attracted to
opposite polarity voltage zones created between the capacitor plates. The
electrons formerly shared by atoms in the water co-valent bond are
re-allocated such that neutral elemental gases are liberated.
In the process, the electrical resonance may be reached at all levels of
voltage potential. The overall circuit is characterized as a "resonant
charging choke" circuit which is an inductor in series with a capacitor
that produces a resonant circuit. [SAMS Modern Dictionary of Electronics,
Rudolff Garff, .COPYRGT. 1984, Howard W. Sams & Co. (Indianapolis, Ind.),
page 859.]Such a resonant charging choke is on each side of the capacitor.
In the circuit, the diode acts as a switch that allows the magnetic field
produced in the inductor to collapse, thereby doubling the pulse frequency
and preventing the capacitor from discharging. In this manner a continuous
voltage is produced across the capacitor plates in the water bath; and the
capacitor does not discharge. The water molecules are thus subjected to a
continuously charged field until the breakdown of the co-valent bond
As noted initially, the capacitance depends on the dielectric properties of
the water and the size and separation of the conductive elements forming
the water capacitor.
In an example of the circuit of FIG. 1 (in which other circuit element
specifications are provided above), two concentric cylinders 4 inches long
formed the water capacitor of the fuel cell in the volume of water. The
outside cylinder was 0.75 inch in outside diameter; the inner cylinder was
0.5 inch in outside diameter. Spacing from the outside of the inner
cylinder to the inner surface of the outside cylinder was 0.0625 inch.
Reasonance in the circuit was achieved at a 26 volt applied pulse to the
primary coil of the torroid at 0KH.sub.z, and the water molecules
disassociated into elemental hydrogen and oxygen and the gas released from
the fuel cell comprised a mixture of hydrogen, oxygen from the water
molecule, and gases formerly dissolved in the water such as the
atmospheric gases or oxygen, nitrogen, and argon.
In achieving resonance in any circuit, as the pulse frequency is adjusted,
the flow of amps is minimized and voltage is maximized to a peak.
Calculation of the resonance frequency of an overall circuit is determined
by known means; different cavities have a different frequencY of resonance
dependent on parameters of the water dielectric, plate size, configuration
and distance, circuit inductors, and the like. Control of the production
of fuel gas is determined by variation of the period of time between a
train of pulses, pulse amplitude and capacitor plate size and
configuration, with corresponding value adjustments to other circuit
The wiper arm on the second inductor tunes the circuit and accommodates to
contaminants in water so that the charge is always applied to the
capacitor. The voltage applied determines the rate of breakdown of the
molecule into its atomic components. As water in the cell is consumed, it
is replaced by any appropriate means or control system.
Variations of the process and apparatus may be evident to those skilled in
* * * * *